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1. Clearly defined research problem
Selected phenomenon, process, structure, relationship, relationship, conditions of existence, etc., which we know the essence of the specially designed studies (observations, measurements, experiment) under laboratory conditions and / or field.
2. Appropriately chosen subject of study.
3. Clearly defined targets.
4. Clearly formulated research hypothesis. Attempt to imagine just how the phenomenon shaped or what causes lead to the creation and development of the structure.
The basis for formulating hypotheses are conditions (and therefore our knowledge to date about the phenomenon or structure). Hypothesis verify (confirm or falsify) by means of specially planned research.
5. Actually, the research methodology chosen
- Action to take in order to verify the hypotheses and research objectives.

Methodology should be:
- Repeatable
- Clearly defined
- Taking into account the specificity of the test object
- The least invasive

Before the relevant research - it is necessary to carry out pilot studies and to become familiar with the literature.

Types of scientific research

Due to the subject of study

1. Floristic studies
2. Faunal studies
3. Habitat research

Because of the way research

1. Experimental studies
2. Field studies

Often we are not able to examine the entire population, so satisfied with her part of the (sampled). The sample must be representative of the population, so that you can use methods of statistical inference. Therefore, many research studies, define an area, often divided into smaller basic plot. Particularly valuable are the studies carried out repeatedly to the same permanent research plots (so-called long-term studies). They allow you to track changes that have taken place over the years in the natural object.

Research areas sets out the most in the shape of rectangles. Sometimes the surfaces are highly elongated and narrow - it areas (transekts) belt (includes full diversity of building research).


Choice of research area, to determine their size and number will depend on:
- to test
- biology of the species
- architectural subjects
- density of individuals
- degree of differentiation of vegetation
- environmental factors, degree of differentiation

Very different environments is frequently assumed a 100m ˛ surface and divides them into the basic plot of the size of 25m ˛, 4m and 1m ˛ ˛. In general, in very different environments is expected a similar system of surface, but high gain.


It follows from the nature of the phenomenon (eg, phenological studies - every 10 days, ornithological observations - about 12 times per year, etc.)

It is necessary to preserve established at the outset of regularity and frequency of observation. Observations should always be carried out at optimal times of the year for the conduct of test events.

Flora - a set of genetic units (fitotaksons- species, genera of the family) colonizing the whole earth or just the selected regions, physiographic objects, etc.

Determine what plant species occur in the test object. It is important to include indication:
- Species protected (Decree of the Minister of Environment of 9.07.2004 on the species of wild plants being protected, Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora)
- Species of foreign origin (especially invasive)
- Species pointing to changes in habitat


Population biology of plants deals with the causes of population variation in time and space (ie, knowledge of population dynamics).

Basic issues in population biology:
1. Changes in abundance and the mechanisms of its regulation
2. Factors affecting the distribution of individuals in the area


Choice of species depends on the tasks they are trying to solve, and on what questions seeking answers.

Species are usually preferred to extract well in communities or create a large, one species patches, which allows determination of the area occupied by individuals of this species.


Repetitive Mapping

Probability of meeting individuals in the area inhabited by the species is not the same.

Reasons for the creation of a specific spatial structure:

1. Biological properties of the species
2. Varied conditions of life for the population

The primary method to determine the spatial structure of the mapping of the permanent research plots. In each growing season is carried out deployment plan or individuals flowering shoots.
This method we use when we want to know part of the population of the species in the vegetation or the relationships between species.


The density of relations is both an expression of population figures, as well as the simplest expression of the spatial structure.
Given the difficulties of knowledge of the total population, it is assumed that changes in density per unit of time, in a passage in the area of population dynamics indicate its size. It is the assessment of the number of indirect method

The fate of intra-individual variability is observed frequently in various congestions, because this feature is a good exponent of the living conditions of the population.

Way to evaluate the population density in a diverse environment

1. You can include in the survey population in several different environments, the number and size depend on the surface if the degree of mosaic distribution of vegetation.

2. You can consciously choose a section of the population of small, medium and high density of individuals in specific circumstances and on this basis to assess the size of the population. Then determine the size and number depend on the surface distribution of degree of differentiation of individuals in space.

Basic plot size depends primarily on the architecture of the individual. If individuals are small - the most basic plot has a surface area of 1 m˛. Only in the case of very high density - may have a plot area of ˝ - Ľ ˛.

The arrangement of basic plots:

- Systematic (balanced)
- Random - enables the use of statistical methods to develop results


Photography is an objective, reliable and reproducible method for collecting and storing scientific data in ecology. The correct value is a series of shots under the same conditions over a longer period of time.

Ornithological studies

1. Variety combined cartographic method

- Establishment - a singing male is treated as a couple of birds
- Mapping the positions of birds on the map
- Multiple checks (8-12) during the season (from early April to late June)
- Rather large area of research and the pace is not too great of a listener
- For the permanent good catches, it is considered if they have been at least 2-3 times found

2. Method of handling (water reservoirs)

- 5 liczeń in each breeding season

- The terms of individual audit shall cover the period most active voice in the breeding season, birds singing, or issuing other voices mating, au fly species for the creation and establishment of pairs.

- Each control is circumvention of the lake and listening to the singing males and counting the birds inside the rushes and open water mirror

3. Method transects (farmland)

- The breeding pair is treated as singing or not singing the male and female (if not found in the vicinity of the presence of a male)

- The method does not allow to assess the density of birds

4. Method of stimulation voice

- Threat to birds:

- Increase their level of activity and emotion
(eg small species "is already visible")
- Disturbance
- Silent (when the owl is looking for a competitor without provocation)
- Territorial skirmishes
- Pulling a longer period of hunting, feeding chicks, etc.

! Do not apply during the high, intrinsic activity of owls
! Enticement immediately stopped when an owl responds to voice stimulation
! Before the start of stimulation - we run 1-3 minute listening spontaneously singing birds
5. Counting birds in photographs taken on journeys to the place of the intake of sleep.

6. Counting dead birds to the place where they sleep.

7. Counting birds in urban parks.

Study contents spilled food

- When you find the contents spilled food - to determine its owner, process, determination of content of food items using the keys for the determination of

-Spilled contents are a source of dietary information on:
- Composition of food acids
- Local fauna of small mammals (noninvasive method!)


- "To my counsel"
- Bucket for bucket with a standard entomological
- Shook the cloth (entomological umbrella)
- Attracted to the light
- Catching the ground traps (Barber traps)
- Breeding ground of the obtained larvae and pupae
- Scraper bottoms
- Search squares



A method for assessing the living conditions prevailing in the natural environment on the basis of the presence or absence of certain indicator organisms (or their team).

Bioindiators can be plants, animals or microorganisms.

Good bioindicator organisms are:
- Ordinary
- Easy to identify
- Quickly and clearly responsive to changes in the environment
- To assess the degree and direction of these changes.
Easily available organisms - plants.

Ecological indicator of vascular plants of Poland
(Zarzycki et al. 2002)

The method allows to obtain information indirectly through the identification of habitat occurring in the vascular plants.

Each species occurring in Poland is described by the benchmark describing habitat conditions (such as indicator lights, thermal, soil moisture, trophy, acidity, texture, organic matter) and the number of positions, a dynamic trend in recent decades and the degree of risk. The scale for most indicators is 5-speed, and intensity factor increases from (0) 1-5 (6).

Sundew (Drosera rotundifolia)

*A (number of posts) 4 (a large number of posts in many regions)
* E (dynamic trends in recent decades) -2 (strong decline in the number of posts)
* C (seriousness) - V (vulnerable to extinction)
* L (indicator light) 4 (moderate light)
* T (thermal index) 4-3 (moderately warm and moderately cold climate)
* In (ratio of soil moisture) 5 (wet)
* Tr (index trophy) 1 (extremely poor soil)
* R (ratio of soil acidity) 1-3 (strongly acidic soil pH <4 - moderately acidic soil 5 <pH <6
* D (ratio of soil texture) 3 (sand)
* H (indicator of organic matter) 3 (soil rich in organic matter)



Publications Scheme natural

1. TITLE - a clear and concise

2. INTRODUCTION - clearly identifying the purpose of research, justification of the topic. Earlier - should outline the theoretical background and present publications on the subject. It is desirable to formulate a clear hypothesis
3. MATERIAL AND METHODS (+ TEST AREA) - precise identification of what has been the subject of research


- Characteristics of physico-geographical (geological substrate, a network of water, soil, regionalization)
- How to land
- Characteristics of vegetation
- Characteristics of fauna
- Location Administrative
- History of use
- Assessment of anthropogenic pressure

- Do not repeat data in a chart, table and text
- Only original results of the author, no interpretation, and polemics.

Here formulate conclusions and justify using his (and others) results. Here the results are used to verify the hypothesis. Here are the most quoted literature.

The references of all publications cited throughout the text.


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